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Signalling Molecules in the Urothelium.

Review article
Authors Michael Winder
Gunnar Tobin
Daša Zupančič
Rok Romih
Published in BioMed research international
Volume 2014
Pages 297295
ISSN 2314-6141
Publication year 2014
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Pharmacology
Pages 297295
Language en
Subject categories Pharmacology


The urothelium was long considered to be a silent barrier protecting the body from the toxic effects of urine. However, today a number of dynamic abilities of the urothelium are well recognized, including its ability to act as a sensor of the intravesical environment. During recent years several pathways of these urothelial abilities have been proposed and a major part of these pathways includes release of signalling molecules. It is now evident that the urothelium represents only one part of the sensory web. Urinary bladder signalling is finely tuned machinery of signalling molecules, acting in autocrine and paracrine manner, and their receptors are specifically distributed among different types of cells in the urinary bladder. In the present review the current knowledge of the formation, release, and signalling effects of urothelial acetylcholine, ATP, adenosine, and nitric oxide in health and disease is discussed.

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