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Physical activity and cognitive functioning in the oldest old: Within- and between-person cognitive and psychosocial mediators

Journal article
Authors A Robitaille
G Muniz
Magnus Lindwall
A.M Piccinin
L Hoffman
Boo Johansson
S.M Hofer
Published in European Journal of Ageing
Volume 11
Issue 4
ISSN 1613-9372
Publication year 2014
Published at Department of Psychology
Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science
Language en
Links link.springer.com.ezproxy.ub.gu.se/...
Keywords Physical activity – Cognitive decline – Aging – Social support – Cognitive activity – Depression – Mediation – Multilevel structural equation modeling
Subject categories Health Sciences, Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology, Psychology

Abstract

The current study examines the role of social contact intensity, cognitive activity, and depressive symptoms as within- and between-person mediators for the relationships between physical activity and cognitive functioning. All three types of mediators were considered simultaneously using multilevel structural equations modeling with longitudinal data. The sample consisted of 470 adults ranging from 79.37 to 97.92 years of age (M = 83.4; SD = 3.2) at the first occasion. Between-person differences in cognitive activity mediated the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning, such that individuals who participated in more physical activities, on average, engaged in more cognitive activities and, in turn, showed better cognitive functioning. Mediation of between-person associations between physical activity and memory through social contact intensity was also significant. At the within-person level, only cognitive activity mediated the relationship between physical activity and change in cognition; however, the indirect effect was small. Depressive symptomatology was not found to significantly mediate within- or between-person effects on cognitive change. Our findings highlight the implications of physical activity participation for the prevention of cognitive decline and the importance of meditational processes at the between-person level. Physical activity can provide older adults with an avenue to make new friendships and engage in more cognitive activities which, in turn, attenuates cognitive decline.

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