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The bone-implant interface - nanoscale analysis of clinically retrieved dental implants

Journal article
Authors Furqan A. Shah
Bengt Nilson
Rickard Brånemark
Peter Thomsen
Anders Palmquist
Published in Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine
Volume 10
Issue 8
Pages 1729–1737
ISSN 1549-9642
Publication year 2014
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics
Pages 1729–1737
Language en
Keywords Dental implant; Nano; Osseointegration; Ultrastructure; Electron microscopy; Bone bonding
Subject categories Biomaterials


Evaluation of the fine structure of the bone-implant interface in humans is a prerequisite for a deepened understanding of structure-function relationships with nano-modified biomaterials. In this study, three clinically stable, yet retrieved, laser-modified dental implants were evaluated using histological and interface ultrastructural analyses. The cumulative results for all threads containing intact tissue showed remodeled Haversian bone with bone area and bone-implant contact in excess of 85% and 80%, respectively. Collagen fibrils, laid down parallel to the surface oxide layer, were mineralized by plate-like crystallites of stoichiometrically relevant (Ca/P ratios 1.30-1.67) bone-apatite. An overlap of titanium, oxygen, calcium and phosphorus signals indicated the gradual intermixing of bone-apatite and the nano-rough surface oxide. These results suggest that bone bonding to nano-textured titanium implant surfaces is promoted in human jaw-bone after functional loading.

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