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PARALLEL EVOLUTION OF LOCAL ADAPTATION AND REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION IN THE FACE OF GENE FLOW

Journal article
Authors Roger Butlin
M. Saura
Grégory Charrier
B. Jackson
Carl André
A. Caballero
J. A. Coyne
J. Galindo
J. W. Grahame
J. Hollander
Petri Kemppainen
M. Martinez-Fernandez
Marina Panova
H. Quesada
Kerstin Johannesson
E. Rolan-Alvarez
Published in Evolution
Volume 68
Issue 4
Pages 935-949
ISSN 0014-3820
Publication year 2014
Published at Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory
Pages 935-949
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.12329
Keywords speciation, parallel evolution, Gene flow, local adaptation, SNAIL LITTORINA-SAXATILIS, APPROXIMATE BAYESIAN COMPUTATION, MARINE, SNAIL, ECOLOGICAL SPECIATION, MATHEMATICAL-MODELS, NATURAL-SELECTION, ANNUAL SUNFLOWERS, POPULATION SIZES, NORTH-AMERICA, CRATER LAKE
Subject categories Evolutionary Biology

Abstract

Parallel evolution of similar phenotypes provides strong evidence for the operation of natural selection. Where these phenotypes contribute to reproductive isolation, they further support a role for divergent, habitat-associated selection in speciation. However, the observation of pairs of divergent ecotypes currently occupying contrasting habitats in distinct geographical regions is not sufficient to infer parallel origins. Here we show striking parallel phenotypic divergence between populations of the rocky-shore gastropod, Littorina saxatilis, occupying contrasting habitats exposed to either wave action or crab predation. This divergence is associated with barriers to gene exchange but, nevertheless, genetic variation is more strongly structured by geography than by ecotype. Using approximate Bayesian analysis of sequence data and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we show that the ecotypes are likely to have arisen in the face of continuous gene flow and that the demographic separation of ecotypes has occurred in parallel at both regional and local scales. Parameter estimates suggest a long delay between colonization of a locality and ecotype formation, perhaps because the postglacial spread of crab populations was slower than the spread of snails. Adaptive differentiation may not be fully genetically independent despite being demographically parallel. These results provide new insight into a major model of ecologically driven speciation.

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