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Repeated measurements of mood during psychologic treatment of dental fear.

Journal article
Authors Magnus Hakeberg
Ulf Berggren
Sven G. Carlsson
Jan-Eric Gustafsson
Published in Acta odontologica Scandinavica
Volume 55
Issue 6
Pages 378-83
ISSN 0001-6357
Publication year 1997
Published at Department of Education
Institute of Odontology
Department of Psychology
Pages 378-83
Language en
Keywords Adult, Affect, Anxiety, diagnosis, psychology, Attitude to Health, Behavior Therapy, Clinical Trials as Topic, Cognitive Therapy, Dental Anxiety, diagnosis, psychology, therapy, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Linear Models, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Middle Aged, Relaxation, Relaxation Therapy, Research Design, Treatment Outcome
Subject categories Psychology


The aims of the present study were to analyze mood changes during psychologic treatment of dental fear by assessing the rate of improvement. Twenty-one patients who refused conventional dental treatment and reported extreme dental anxiety participated in the study. Levels of dental anxiety and mood were measured with the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a Mood Adjective Checklist (MACL). MACL included two dimensions, degree of relaxation (r) and pleasantness (h) as experienced in a dental situation. Mood was monitored at each treatment session from base line to termination of the therapy (eight measurements). Two different treatment modalities were used, one with a more cognitive approach (n = 9) and one emphasizing the relaxation component (n = 12). A hierarchical linear models approach was applied to analyze individual change with repeated measurements. The results showed that positive mood changes over time were statistically significant. The mean improvement in mood scores per week and session was estimated for MACL(r) and MACL(h) to be 0.14/week and 0.09/week, respectively. The growth was not affected by DAS levels or treatment mode. This study also illustrated a powerful method for analyzing a longitudinal clinical trial design with repeated measurements.

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