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Surface Ozone in the Marine Environment—Horizontal Ozone Concentration Gradients in Coastal Areas

Journal article
Authors Håkan Pleijel
Jenny Klingberg
G. Pihl Karlsson
Magnuz Engardt
Per Erik Karlsson
Published in Water, Air and Soil Pollution
Volume 224
Issue 7
Pages artikel nr 1603
ISSN 0049-6979
Publication year 2013
Published at Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Pages artikel nr 1603
Language en
Keywords Ozone, Wind direction, Coast, Marine boundary layer, Terrestrial boundary layer, Nitrogen dioxide
Subject categories Earth and Related Environmental Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences


Spring/summer surface ozone concentrations, [O3], in coastal environments were investigated: (1) by comparison of coastal and inland monitoring stations with data from a small island >5 km off the coast of southwest Sweden, (2) as a gradient from the coast towards inland in southernmost Sweden. Further, results from the chemical transport model MATCH were used to assess the marine influence on [O3]. It was hypothesised that [O3] is higher on the small island compared to the coast, especially during night and in offshore wind. Another hypothesis was that [O3] declines from the coast towards inland. Our hypotheses were based on observations that the deposition velocity of O3 to sea surfaces is lower than to terrestrial surfaces, and that vertical air mixing is stronger in the marine environment, especially during night. The island experienced 10 % higher [O3] compared to the coast. This difference was larger with offshore (15 %) than onshore wind (9 %). The concentration difference between island and coast was larger during night, but prevailed during day and could not be explained by differences in [NO2] between the sites. The difference in [O3] between the island and the inland site was 20 %. Higher [O3] over the sea, especially during night, was reproduced by MATCH. In the gradient study, [O3] declined from the coast towards inland. Both [O3] and [NO2] were elevated at the coast, indicating that the gradient in [O3] from the coast was not caused by NO titration. The conclusions were that surface [O3] in marine environments is higher than in coastal, and higher in coastal than inland areas, especially during night.

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