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A Nonvolatile Spintronic Memory Element with a Continuum of Resistance States

Journal article
Authors Yeyu Fang
Randy K. Dumas
T. N. Anh Nguyen
Majid Mohseni
Sunjae Chung
Casey W. Miller
Johan Åkerman
Published in Advanced Functional Materials
Volume 23
Issue 15
Pages 1919–1922
ISSN 1616-301X
Publication year 2013
Published at Department of Physics (GU)
Pages 1919–1922
Language en
Keywords magnetism, spintronics
Subject categories Magnetism


A continuum of stable remanent resistance states is reported in perpendicularly magnetized pseudo spin valves with a graded anisotropy free layer. The resistance states can be systematically set by an externally applied magnetic field. The gradual reversal of the free layer with applied field and the field-independent fixed layer leads to a range of stable and reproducible remanent resistance values, as determined by the giant magnetoresistance of the device. An analysis of first-order reversal curves combined with magnetic force microscopy shows that the origin of the effect is the field-dependent population of up and down domains in the free layer.

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