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High physiological omega-3 Fatty Acid supplementation affects muscle Fatty Acid composition and glucose and insulin homeostasis in obese adolescents.

Journal article
Authors Frida Dangardt
Yun Chen
Eva Gronowitz
Jovanna Dahlgren
Peter Friberg
Birgitta Strandvik
Published in Journal of nutrition and metabolism
Volume 2012
Pages 395757
ISSN 2090-0732
Publication year 2012
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Pediatrics
Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Institute of Clinical Sciences
Pages 395757
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/395757
Subject categories Pediatrics

Abstract

Obese adolescents have high concentrations of saturated fatty acids and low omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in plasma phospholipids. We aimed to investigate effects of omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to obese adolescents on skeletal muscle lipids and glucose and insulin homeostasis. Twenty-five obese adolescents (14-17 years old, 14 females) completed a randomized double-blind crossover study supplying capsules containing either 1.2 g omega-3 LCPUFAs or placebo, for 3 months each with a six-week washout period. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, and lipids were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed, and skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of each period. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and total omega-3 PUFA in muscle phospholipids increased in both sexes. In the females, omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation improved glucose tolerance by 39% (P = 0.04) and restored insulin concentration by 34% (P = 0.02) during IVGTT. Insulin sensitivity improved 17% (P = 0.07). In males, none of these parameters was influenced by omega-3 supplementation. Thus, three months of supplementation of omega-3 LCPUFA improved glucose and insulin homeostasis in obese girls without influencing body weight.

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