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Deuterium Clusters DN and Mixed K–D and D–H Clusters of Rydberg Matter: High Temperatures and Strong Coupling to Ultra-Dense Deuterium

Journal article
Authors Leif Holmlid
Published in Journal of Cluster Science
Volume 23
Pages 95-114
ISSN 1040-7278
Publication year 2012
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Pages 95-114
Language en
Keywords Ultra-dense deuterium. Deuterium clusters. TOF–MS. Coulomb explosion. Rydberg Matter.
Subject categories Molecular physics, Chemical physics, Electronic structure, Chemical physics


Ultra-dense deuterium D(-1) can be formed by a catalytic process from Rydberg Matter (RM) of deuterium as reported previously. Laser-induced inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has recently been observed in this material. The formation of D(-1) is now studied through experiments observing the deuterium RM clusters DN in excitation levels nB = 1, 3 and 4. These levels are intermediate in the formation process of D(-1). Laser-induced fragmentation is used, with neutral timeof-flight (TOF) and TOF–MS measurements of the kinetic energy release (KER) from the quantized Coulomb explosions (CE). Several types of pure DN clusters, mixed clusters containing both D and H atoms, and clusters containing both D and K atoms are identified. The large planar RM clusters which are common for H and K are less common for D. The neutral DN clusters are small and have high kinetic temperature, typically at 100 K instead of 10 K for KN and HN. Large DN+ clusters are only observed when an electric field is applied, probably stabilized by increased cooling. A strong coupling of the D(1) laser fragmentation signal to the ultra-dense D(-1) signal is observed, and the materials D(1) and D(-1) are two rapidly interchangeable forms of quantum fluids.

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