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Sub-nanometer distances and cluster shapes in dense hydrogen and in higher levels of hydrogen Rydberg matter by phase-delay spectroscopy

Journal article
Authors Leif Holmlid
Published in Journal of Nanoparticle Research
Volume 13
Pages 5535–5546
Publication year 2011
Published at Department of Chemistry
Pages 5535–5546
Language en
Keywords Rydberg matter, Cluster, Phase-delay, Bond length, Hydrogen, Light scattering, Nanoscale instrumentation
Subject categories Mesoscopic physics, Spectroscopy, Chemical physics


The inter-atomic distances in potassium clusters of Rydberg matter (RM) at excitation levels nB = 4–8 were recently measured by hase-delay spectroscopy (Holmlid, J Nanopart Res 12: 273, 2010). Excitation levels nB\4 with shorter interatomic distances exist for hydrogen clusters, and distances down to 140 pm are now measured with this light-scattering method. The clusters studied have maximum dimensions from 0.3 nm up to several tens of nm, often being planar. A weak carbon dioxide laser beam interacts with the clusters in a tunable RM cavity. A strong fringe structure is observed as a function of the end-grating angular position. Delay lengths in the clusters are derived from the fringe structure, corresponding to twice the distance between rows or planes in the clusters. Good agreement with predicted and a few previously measured distances in excitation levels nB = 1, 2, and 3 is found. Close-packing is the main structure both in planar and 3D clusters. Planar clusters are only observed for nB = 1 and 3, while 3D clusters are found in excitation levels nB = 1, 2 and 3. The cluster–cluster distance in stacks of planar clusters for nB = 2 and 3 is now observed for the first time.

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