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Naloxone and Ouabain in Ultralow Concentrations Restore Na+/K+-ATPase and Cytoskeleton in Lipopolysaccharide-treated Astrocytes.

Journal article
Authors Johan Forshammar
Linda Block
Christopher Lundborg
Björn Biber
Elisabeth Hansson
Published in The Journal of biological chemistry
Volume 286
Issue 36
Pages 31586-97
ISSN 1083-351X
Publication year 2011
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive care
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation
Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Pages 31586-97
Language en
Subject categories Physiology, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care


Astrocytes respond to inflammatory stimuli and may be important modulators of the inflammatory response in the nervous system. This study aimed first to assess how astrocytes in primary culture behave in response to inflammatory stimuli concerning intracellular Ca(2+) responses, expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, actin filament organization, and expression of cytokines. In a cell culture model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), astrocyte response was assessed first in the acute phase and then after incubation with LPS for 1-48 h. The concentration curve for LPS-stimulated Ca(2+) responses was bell-shaped, and the astrocytes expressed TLR4, which detects LPS and evokes intracellular Ca(2+) transients. After a long incubation with LPS, TLR4 was up-regulated, LPS-evoked Ca(2+) transients were expressed as oscillations, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was down-regulated, and the actin filaments were disorganized. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release was increased after 24 h in LPS. A second aim was to try to restore the LPS-induced changes in astrocytes with substances that may have dose-dependent anti-inflammatory properties. Naloxone and ouabain were tested separately in ultralow or high concentrations. Both substances evoked intracellular Ca(2+) transients for all of the concentrations from 10(-15) up to 10(-4) m. Neither substance blocked the TLR4-evoked Ca(2+) responses. Naloxone and ouabain prevented the LPS-induced down-regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and restored the actin filaments. Ouabain, in addition, reduced the IL-1β release from reactive astrocytes. Notably, ultralow concentrations (10(-12) m) of naloxone and ouabain showed these qualities. Ouabain seems to be more potent in these effects of the two tested substances.

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