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Histological and three-dimensional evaluation of osseointegration to nanostructured calcium phosphate-coated implants.

Journal article
Authors Ryo Jimbo
Paulo G Coelho
Stefan Vandeweghe
Humberto Osvaldo Schwartz-Filho
Mariko Hayashi
Daisuke Ono
Martin Andersson
Ann Wennerberg
Published in Acta biomaterialia
ISSN 1878-7568
Publication year 2011
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2011.07...
Keywords Nano structures, Micro-CT, Surface chemistry, Bone implant interactions
Subject categories Biomaterials

Abstract

Nanostructures on implant surfaces have been shown to enhance osseointegration; however, commonly used evaluation techniques are probably not sufficiently sensitive to fully determine the effects of this process. This study aimed to observe the osseointegration properties of nanostructured calcium phosphate (CaP)-coated implants, by using a combination of three-dimensional imaging and conventional histology. Titanium implants were coated with stable CaP nanoparticles using an immersion technique followed by heat treatment. Uncoated implants were used as the control. After topographical and chemical characterizations, implants were inserted into the rabbit femur. After 2 and 4weeks, the samples were retrieved for micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric evaluation. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation indicated that the implant surface was modified at the nanoscale by CaP to obtain surface textured with rod-shaped structures. Relative to the control, the bone-to-implant contact for the CaP-coated implant was significantly higher at 4weeks after the implant surgery. Further, corresponding 3-D images showed active bone formation surrounding the implant. 3-D quantification and 2-D histology demonstrated statistical correlation; moreover, 3-D quantification indicated a statistical decrease in bone density in the non-coated control implant group between 2 and 4weeks after the surgery. The application of 3-D evaluation further clarified the temporal characteristics and biological reaction of implants in bone.

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