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Shifts in Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase types with increasing prevalence of Escherichia coli producing ESBL

Authors Lisa Helldal
Nahid Karami
Susann Skovbjerg
Kirsten Floren
Christel Unosson
Christina Welinder-Olsson
Edward R.B. Moore
Christina Åhrén
Published in 20th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), Vienna, Austria
Publication year 2010
Published at Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Infectious Medicine
Language en
Keywords Escherichia coli, ESBL, CTX-M, OXA, SHV, TEM
Subject categories Infectious Medicine, Clinical bacteriology


Objectives: Contrary to other multidrug-resistant pathogens, the prevalence of bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is increasing rapidly in Sweden. In Europe, ESBL of CTX-M-, TEM-, OXA- and SHV-types are generally associated with E. coli infections, CTX-M being the most predominant. We have investigated how the prevalence of these types has changed during the last five years in the low endemic setting of western Sweden. Methods: Yearly resistance in urinary (approximately 10,000 isolates/year) and blood (approximately 250 isolates/year) E. coli during 2004-2008 were determined. Cephalosporin-resistant isolates were screened for ESBL, using a double-disk assay with clavulanic acid as the inhibitory agent. All ESBL-E. coli isolated in the region during the periods Sept 2003-April 2005 (n=46) and April 2008-March 2009 (n=256) were typed by multiplex-PCR, detecting CTX-M, TEM, OXA and SHV. CTX-M-positive isolates were sub-typed by real time Q-PCR for CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2 and CTXM-9 groups. Results: During 2004-2008, ESBL-producing E. coli strains increased from 0.3-1.5% in urinary and 0-1.4% in blood isolates. Resistance to quinolones and trimethoprim was observed in 60-80% of strains, as compared to less than 8% in non-ESBL-producing E. coli. The majority of the ESBL-E. coli strains possessed the CTX-M gene-type, increasing from 78% (36/46) in 2003-2005 to 93% (238/256) in 2008-2009. Between these time-periods, a marked shift occurred in the distribution of CTX-M types, in that strains with the CTX-M-9 group decreased from 42% (15/36) of isolates to 21% (51/238, p=0.01) and, simultaneously, strains with the CTX-M-1 group increased from 58% (21/36) to 78% (185/238, p= 0.02). Furthermore, strains of CTX-M-type exhibiting also TEM- and/or OXA increased to comprise 86% of cases, as compared to 75% previously. Similar trends were seen for community and hospital detected isolates and with no differences associated with age in affected patients. Conclusion: A steady increase in multidrug-resistant ESBL-E. coli, possessing the genes for multiple ESBL-types, was observed in western Sweden, contrary to the patterns of other multidrug-resistant bacteria. As ESBL has increased during the five-year study period, we detected a shift in the prevalence of ESBL-types, currently dominated by the CTX-M-1 group. These observations suggest that a novel ESBL-producing E. coli clone may have emerged in the area, which will be further investigated and presented.

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