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Mucosal adjuvants and long-term memory development with special focus on CTA1-DD and other ADP-ribosylating toxins.

Journal article
Authors Nils Y Lycke
Mats Bemark
Published in Mucosal immunology
Issue 3
Pages 556-566
ISSN 1935-3456
Publication year 2010
Published at Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Pages 556-566
Language en
Subject categories Microbiology in the medical area


The ultimate goal for vaccination is to stimulate protective immunological memory. Protection against infectious diseases not only relies on the magnitude of the humoral immune response, but more importantly on the quality and longevity of it. Adjuvants are critical components of most non-living vaccines. Although little attention has been given to qualitative aspects of the choice of vaccine adjuvant, emerging data demonstrate that this function may be central to vaccine efficacy. In this review we describe efforts to understand more about how adjuvants influence qualitative aspects of memory development. We describe recent advances in understanding how vaccines induce long-lived plasma and memory B cells, and focus our presentation on the germinal center reaction. As mucosal vaccination requires powerful adjuvants, we have devoted much attention to the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylating cholera toxin and the CTA1-DD adjuvants as examples of how mucosal adjuvants can influence induction of long-term memory.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 15 September 2010. doi:10.1038/mi.2010.54.

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