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Laser-induced variable pulse-power TOF-MS and neutral time-of-flight studies of ultradense deuterium

Journal article
Authors Shahriar Badiei
Patrik U Andersson
Leif Holmlid
Published in Physica Scripta
Volume 81
Issue 4
Pages 045601 1-13
ISSN 0031-8949
Publication year 2010
Published at Department of Chemistry
Pages 045601 1-13
Language en
Keywords Ultra-dense deuterium
Subject categories Molecular physics, Chemical physics, Electronic structure, Spectroscopy


The ultradense atomic deuterium material named D(−1) is conveniently studied by laser-induced Coulomb explosion methods. A well-defined high kinetic energy release (KER) from this material was first reported in Badiei et al (2009 Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 34 487) and a two-detector setup was used to prove the high KER and the complex fragmentation patterns in Badiei et al (2009 Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 282 70). The common KER is 630±30 eV, which corresponds to an interatomic distance D–D of 2.3±0.1 pm. In both ion and neutral time-of-flight (TOF) measurement, two similar detectors at widely different flight distances prove that atomic particles are observed. New results on neutral TOF spectra are now reported for the material D(−1). It is shown that density changes of D(−1) are coupled to similar changes in ordinary dense D(1), and it is proposed that these two forms of dense deuterium are rapidly transformed into each other. The TOF-MS signal dependence on the intensity of the laser is studied in detail. The fast deuteron intensity is independent of the laser power over a large range, which suggests that D(−1) is a superfluid with long-range efficient transport of excitation energy or particles.

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