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The Swedish Reflux Trial in Children: III. Urinary Tract Infection Pattern.

Journal article
Authors Per Brandström
Elisabeth Esbjörner
Maria Herthelius
Svante Swerkersson
Ulf Jodal
Sverker Hansson
Published in The Journal of urology
Volume 184
Issue 1
Pages 286-291
ISSN 1527-3792
Publication year 2010
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Pediatrics
Pages 286-291
Language en
Keywords kidney; urinary tract infections; vesico-ureteral reflux; cicatrix; antibiotic prophylaxis
Subject categories Infectious Medicine, Pediatric surgery, Pediatrics


PURPOSE: We evaluated the difference in the febrile urinary tract infection rate in small children with dilating vesicoureteral reflux randomly allocated to 3 management alternatives, including antibiotic prophylaxis, endoscopic treatment or surveillance only as the control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At 23 centers a total of 203 children were included in the study, including 128 girls and 75 boys 1 to younger than 2 years. Vesicoureteral reflux grade III in 126 cases and IV in 77 was detected after a febrile urinary tract infection (194) after prenatal screening (9). Voiding cystourethrography and dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy were done before randomization and after 2 years. The febrile urinary tract infection rate was analyzed by the intent to treat principle. RESULTS: We noted a total of 67 febrile recurrences in 42 girls and a total of 8 in 7 boys (p = 0.0001). There was a difference in the recurrence rate among treatment groups in girls with febrile infection in 8 of 43 (19%) on prophylaxis, 10 of 43 (23%) with endoscopic therapy and 24 of 42 (57%) on surveillance (p = 0.0002). In girls the recurrence rate was associated with persistent reflux after 2 years (p = 0.0095). However, reflux severity (grade III or IV) at study entry did not predict recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized, controlled trial there was a high rate of recurrent febrile urinary tract infection in girls older than 1 year with dilating vesicoureteral reflux at study entry but not in boys. Antibiotic prophylaxis and endoscopic treatment decreased the infection rate.

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