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Substituting citrate for lactate in peritoneal dialysis fluid improves ultrafiltration in rats

Journal article
Authors Nicola Cavallini
A. Wieslander
Magnus Braide
Published in Peritoneal Dialysis International
Volume 29
Issue 1
Pages 36-43
ISSN 0896-8608
Publication year 2009
Published at Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Pages 36-43
Language en
Keywords Animals, Ascitic Fluid/chemistry, Citrates/*administration & dosage, Dialysis Solutions/*pharmacology, Disease Models, Animal, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Injections, Intraperitoneal, Lactates/analysis/*isolation & purification, Male, Peritoneal Dialysis/*methods, Peritoneum/drug effects, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Ultrafiltration/*methods
Subject categories Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology


BACKGROUND: Exposure to peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid induces an inflammatory response in the peritoneal cavity. Blockers of complement and coagulation have improved ultrafiltration in animal models of PD. Citrate is a clinically established anticoagulant that also blocks complement activation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on ultrafiltration of a gradual substitution of citrate for lactate in an experimental model of PD. METHODS: Fractions (0, 5, 10, and 15 mmol/L) of the 40 mmol/L lactate buffer of filter-sterilized 2.5% glucose PD fluid were replaced by citrate. The modified fluids were compared in a rat model of single PD fluid exposure through an indwelling catheter. The initial kinetics of citrate and ionized calcium were evaluated in separate, single, short time dwell experiments. RESULTS: Replacing 10 and 15 mmol/L of the lactate buffer by sodium citrate significantly increased osmotic ultrafiltration (by 24.7%+/-7.7% at 10 mmol/L), net ultrafiltration, and glucose retention at 4 hours of dwell time in the rat model. Osmotic ultrafiltration was significantly correlated to citrate concentration and glucose concentration. Citrate was rapidly eliminated from the peritoneal cavity, concentrations falling to less than half in 1 hour and concentrations of calcium ions concomitantly normalized. CONCLUSIONS: Substituting citrate for lactate induced a dose-dependent increase in ultrafiltration. Mechanisms probably involve the relation between diffusion and ultrafiltration, leading to increased glucose retention. The increase in ultrafiltration was quantitatively important at a citrate concentration (10 mmol/L) that is compatible with clinical applications of citrate.

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