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Secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray microanalysis of hypomineralized enamel in human permanent first molars.

Journal article
Authors Birgitta Jälevik
Hans Odelius
W Dietz
Jörgen G Norén
Published in Archives of oral biology
Volume 46
Issue 3
Pages 239-47
ISSN 0003-9969
Publication year 2001
Published at Institute of Odontology, Department of Pedodontics
Department of Physics (GU)
Pages 239-47
Language en
Keywords Calcium, analysis, Carbon, analysis, Child, Chlorine, analysis, Dental Enamel, abnormalities, chemistry, Electron Probe Microanalysis, Fluorine, analysis, Humans, Magnesium, analysis, Molar, abnormalities, chemistry, Oxygen, analysis, Phosphorus, analysis, Potassium, analysis, Sodium, analysis, Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion, Strontium, analysis, Tooth Calcification
Subject categories Paedodontics


A common finding in Swedish children is hypomineralization in first molars of unknown cause. Little is known about the chemical composition of the disturbed enamel. The aim here was to analyse the concentration gradients for F, Cl, Na, Mg, K and Sr in hypomineralized enamel from 17 permanent molars by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry, to complete this analysis with an examination of the main matrix elements O, P and Ca by means of X-ray microanalysis, and to compare them with normal enamel. Hypomineralized enamel had a higher content of carbon and the calcium as well as the phosphorus concentration was lower than in normal enamel. The mean Ca/P ratio in hypomineralized areas was significantly lower (1.4) than in the adjacent normal enamel (1.8). The F content was highly variable in impaired enamel and higher than in normal, but close to the surface there was most often no difference between the two. Contents of Mg and K were slightly higher in hypomineralized areas, especially towards the surface. Also Na had a somewhat higher content toward the surface in defective enamel. Cl and Sr contents had negligible or no diversity in relation to the degree of mineralization.

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