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The FTF (Five to Fifteen): the development of a parent questionnaire for the assessment of ADHD and comorbid conditions.

Journal article
Authors Björn Kadesjö
Lars-Olof Janols
Marit Korkman
Katarina Mickelsson
Gerd Strand
Anegen Trillingsgaard
Christopher Gillberg
Published in European child & adolescent psychiatry
Volume 13 Suppl 3
Pages 3-13
ISSN 1018-8827
Publication year 2004
Published at Institute for the Health of Women and Children, Dept of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Pages 3-13
Language en
Keywords Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, complications, diagnosis, Child, Comorbidity, Diagnosis, Differential, Humans, Parent-Child Relations, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Questionnaires, Sex Factors
Subject categories Child and adolescent psychiatry


This paper describes the development of a new parent questionnaire ("Five to Fifteen", or the FTF) for elicitation of symptoms and problems typical of ADHD and its comorbidities. The FTF comprises 181 statements related to behavioural or developmental problems that can be endorsed as either "does not apply" (0), applies sometimes or to some extent" (1), "definitely applies" (2), plus a number of open-ended questions including some about the child's strengths. The items are arranged into eight different domains (memory, learning, language, executive functions, motor skills, perception, social skills, and emotional/behavioural problems), most of which can be subdivided into subdomains. For each domain, a mean score ranging from 0-2 can be calculated. A representative sample (n=1350) of the total population of 6-15-year-old children was targeted. Parents of 63% of these completed a questionnaire and returned it to the researchers. Boys showed significantly more problems than did girls across domains and age. Younger children had more problems than pre-adolescents and adolescents (except in the domains of social skills and emotional/behavioural problems). Executive dysfunction was common, and 5.3% of all children in the population had clear problems suggesting a diagnosis of ADHD according to parent report. The paper provides means, medians, and 90(th) and 95(th) centiles for individual items as well as for the eight domains. The Discussion centres on whether or not the FTF can (or should) be used in school-aged children for the identification of children at risk for ADHD or other early childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder.

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