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Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders in adults with childhood onset AD/HD and/or autism spectrum disorders.

Journal article
Authors Ola Ståhlberg
Henrik Söderström
Maria Råstam
Christopher Gillberg
Published in Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996)
Volume 111
Issue 7
Pages 891-902
ISSN 0300-9564
Publication year 2004
Published at Institute for the Health of Women and Children, Dept of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Psychiatry
Pages 891-902
Language en
Keywords Adult, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, epidemiology, psychology, Autistic Disorder, epidemiology, psychology, Bipolar Disorder, epidemiology, psychology, Cohort Studies, Comorbidity, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Psychotic Disorders, epidemiology, psychology, Schizophrenia, epidemiology, Statistics, Nonparametric
Subject categories Child and adolescent psychiatry


Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Exclusion criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) impede the use of categorical diagnoses to describe the particular problem constellation in a patient. In this study, we describe the prevalence and patterns of comorbid bipolar and psychotic disorders in 241 consecutively referred adult patients with AD/HD and/or ASD. Thirty per cent of patients with AD/HD had comorbid ASD and 38% of patients with ASD had comorbid AD/HD. Of the subjects with ASD, 7% had bipolar disorder with psychotic features, and 7.8% had schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder. The corresponding figures for the patients with AD/HD were 5.0% and 5.0%, respectively. Current diagnostic criteria have to be revised to acknowledge the comorbidity of bipolar and/or psychotic disorders in AD/HD and ASD.

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