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LDOES ischemic preconditioning increase flap survival by ADORA2B receptor activation?

Journal article
Authors Matteo Amoroso
Pinar Ulker
Ozlenen Ozkan
Mehmet Can Ubur
Mutay Aslan
Filiz Ozcan
Ibrahim Bassorgun
Omer Ozkan
Published in Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation
ISSN 1875-8622
Publication year 2020
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Plastic Surgery
Language en
Subject categories Plastic surgery


Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is defined as raising tolerance to subsequent ischemic stress by exposing tissues to sub-lethal ischemia. Although many candidates have been suggested, recent studies have clearly demonstrated that adenosine-mediated ADORA2B receptor (ADORA2BR) activation is the main mechanism involved in IPC. While the tissue-protective role of this mechanism has been demonstrated in different ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models, its role in flap surgery-derived I/R damage has not to date been investigated.To investigate the role of adenosine and ADORA2BR activation in IPC-mediated tissue protection in an epigastric flap model.Animals were divided into five main groups, all of which were then divided into two subgroups depending on whether or not they were exposed to IPC before the I/R procedure, which consisted of 6 hours of ischemia and 6 days of reperfusion. No drugs were administered in Group 1 (the control group). Animals in Group 2 were pretreated with CD73-inhibitor before IPC application or the ischemic period. Animals in Group 3 were pretreated with adenosine. Animals in Group 4 were pretreated with an ADORA2BR antagonist, and those in Group 5 with an ADORA2BR agonist. After 6 days of reperfusion, tissue survival was evaluated via histological and macroscopic analysis.IPC application significantly enhanced CD73 expressions and adenosine concentrations (p < 0.01). Flap survivals were increased by IPC in Group 1 (p < 0.05). However, CD73 inhibition blocked this increase (Group 2). In Group 3, adenosine improved flap survival even in the absence of IPC (p < 0.01). While an ADORA2BR antagonist attenuated the tissue-protective effect of IPC (p < 0.01), the ADORA2BR agonist improved flap survival by mimicking IPC in groups 4 and 5.These results provide pharmacological evidence for a contribution of CD73 enzyme-dependent adenosine generation and signaling through ADORA2BR to IPC-mediated tissue protection. They also suggest for the first time that ADORA2BR agonists may be used as a potential preventive therapy against I/R injury in flap surgeries.

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