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Dementia associated with disorders of the basal ganglia

Review article
Authors K. S. Vitanova
Katie Stringer
D. P. Benitez
J. Brenton
D. M. Cummings
Published in Journal of Neuroscience Research
ISSN 0360-4012
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24508
Keywords basal ganglia, cognitive decline, dementia, disease, neurodegeneration, alpha-synuclein pathology, deep brain-stimulation, nigra dopamine, neurons, grey-matter atrophy, lewy body disease, parkinsons-disease, alzheimers-disease, huntingtons-disease, mitochondrial dysfunction, subthalamic nucleus
Subject categories Neurosciences

Abstract

Dementia is now the leading cause of death in the United Kingdom, accounting for over 12% of all deaths and is the fifth most common cause of death worldwide. As treatments for heart disease and cancers improve and the population ages, the number of sufferers will only increase, with the chance of developing dementia doubling every 5 years after the age of 65. Finding an effective treatment is ever more critical to avert this pandemic health (and economic) crisis. To date, most dementia-related research has focused on cortex and hippocampus; however, with dementia becoming more fully recognized as aspects of diseases historically categorized as motor disorders (e.g., Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases), the role of the basal ganglia in dementia is coming to the fore. Conversely, it is highly likely that neuronal pathways in these structures traditionally considered as spared in Alzheimer's disease are also affected, particularly in later stages of the disease. In this review, we examine some of the limited evidence linking the basal ganglia to dementia.

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