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Ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) as dark matter in the universe: new possibilities for the cosmological red-shift and the cosmic microwave background radiation

Journal article
Authors Leif Holmlid
Published in Astrophysics and Space Science
Volume 364
Issue 8
ISSN 0004-640X
Publication year 2019
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10509-019-3632-...
Keywords Ultra-dense hydrogen, Dark matter, Red-shifts, CMB, laser-induced processes, rydberg matter, interstellar space, stimulated, raman, emission-spectroscopy, coulomb explosions, excited-states, nuclear-fusion, deuterium, clusters, Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subject categories Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Abstract

50 experimental publications exist on ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) from our laboratory. A review of these results was published recently (L. Holmlid and S. Zeiner-Gundersen in Phys. Scr. 74(7), 2019, 10.1088/1402-4896/ab1276). The importance of this quantum material in space is accentuated by a few recent publications: The so called extended red emission (ERE) spectra in space agree well (L. Holmlid in Astrophys. J. 866:107, 2018a) with rotational spectra measured from H(0) in the laboratory, supporting the notion that H(0) is a major part of the dark matter in the Universe. The proton solar wind was shown to agree well with the protons ejected by Coulomb explosions in p(0), thus finally providing a convincing detailed energy mechanism for the solar wind protons (L. Holmlid in J. Geophys. Res. 122:7956-7962, 2017c). The very high corona temperature in the Sun is also directly explained (L. Holmlid in J. Geophys. Res. 122:7956-7962, 2017c) as caused by well-studied nuclear reactions in H(0). H(0) is the lowest energy form of hydrogen and H(0) is thus expected to exist everywhere where hydrogen exists in the Universe. The so called cosmological red-shifts have earlier been shown to agree quantitatively with stimulated Raman processes in ordinary Rydberg matter. H(0) easily transforms to ordinary Rydberg matter and can also form the largest length scale of matter, with highly excited electrons just a few K from the ionization limit. Such electronic states provide the small excitations needed in the condensed matter H(0) for a thermal emission at a few K temperature corresponding to the CMB, the so called cosmic microwave background radiation. These excitations can be observed directly by ordinary Raman spectroscopy (L. Holmlid in J. Raman Spectrosc. 39:1364-1374, 2008b). A purely thermal distribution from H(0) and also from ordinary Rydberg Matter at 2.7 K is the simplest explanation of the CMB. The coupling of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom observed as in experiments with H(0) gives almost continuous energy excitations which can create a smooth thermal CMB emission spectrum as observed. Thus, both cosmological red-shifts and CMB are now proposed to partially be due to easily studied microscopic processes in ultradense hydrogen H(0) and the other related types of hydrogen matter at the two other length scales. These processes can be repeated at will in any laboratory. These microscopic formation processes are much simpler than the earlier proposed large-scale non-repeatable processes related to Big Bang.

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