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Roadside assessment of a modern city bus fleet: Gaseous and particle emissions

Journal article
Authors Qianyun Liu
Åsa M. Hallquist
Henrik Fallgren
Martin Jerksjö
Sara Jutterström
Håkan Salberg
Mattias Hallquist
Michael Le Breton
Xiangyu Pei
Ravi K. Pathak
Tengyu Liu
Berto Lee
Chak K. Chan
Published in Atmospheric Environment: X
Volume 3
Publication year 2019
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Language en
Keywords Compressed natural gas (CNG), Emission factor, Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), Hydro-treated vegetable oil (HVO), Rapeseed methyl ester (RME), Roadside measurement, Vehicle emissions
Subject categories Chemical Sciences, Other Chemistry Topics, Analytical Chemistry, Earth and Related Environmental Sciences, Climate Research, Environmental Sciences, Environmental chemistry, Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Chemical energy engineering, Environmental engineering, Vehicle Engineering

Abstract

© 2019 The Authors In many cities worldwide, modern fleets have been introduced to reduce gaseous and particle emissions from city buses. To date, most emission studies are limited to a few vehicles, making a statistically significant assessment of control options difficult, especially under real-world driving conditions. Exhaust emissions of 234 individual city buses were measured under real-world stop-and-go traffic conditions at a bus stop in Gothenburg, Sweden. The buses comprised models fulfilling Euro III-VI and EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) standards with different engine technologies, fuels, and exhaust after-treatment systems, and also included hybrid-electric buses (HEV). Both gaseous (NOx, CO, HC, and SO2) and size-resolved particle number (PN) and mass (PM) emission factors (EF) were calculated for vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), diesel (DSL), Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Hydro-treated Vegetable Oil (HVO) equipped with various after-treatment technologies, e.g., diesel particulate filter (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. The highest median EFPN was obtained from Euro VHEV-HVO-SCR buses (MdEFPN = 18×1014 # kg-1) when their combustion engines were used though 53% of their accelerations were below detection limits indicating the use of their electrical engine. The highest MdEFPM was obtained from the Euro V-DSL-SCR buses (MdEFPM = 150 mg kg-1) and the lowest from EEV-CNG buses (below detection threshold) and Euro VIHEV-HVO- SCR+EGR+DPF buses (MdEFPM = 19 mg kg-1). The highest MdEFNOx was obtained from the Euro V-RME-SCR (MdEFNOx = 30 g kg-1) and Euro VHEV-HVO-SCR buses (MdEFNOx = 24 g kg-1), and the lowest from CNG buses (MdEFNOx = 4.8 g kg-1) and Euro VIHEV-HVO-SCR+EGR+DPF buses (MdEFNOx = 7.4 g kg-1). Hybrid buses can give higher PN emissions compared to traditional diesel engines, likely due to downsized combustion engines. Replacing diesel by biodiesel fuel reduced MdEFPM significantly but increased MdEFNOx which may be due to the higher combustion temperature and oxygen contents of the fuel (for RME). Overall, the EEV-CNG buses performed the best regarding both the MdEF and low contribution to the high emitters. It was also found that a small (5%) proportion of the buses contributed significantly (14-30%) to the total emissions. Identification and monitoring the maintenance of the high emitters in the fleets should be considered for the improvement of air quality.

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