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Excess risk of lower extremity amputations in people with type 1 diabetes compared with the general population: Amputations and type 1 diabetes

Journal article
Authors Arndis Olafsdottir
Ann-Marie Svensson
A. Pivodic
Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir
T. Nyström
Hans Wedel
Annika Rosengren
Marcus Lind
Published in BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
Volume 7
Issue 1
ISSN 2052-4897
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Institute of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Health Metrics
Language en
Keywords HbA1c, lower extremity amputations, minor amputations, renal failure, type 1 diabetes
Subject categories Diabetology


Objective This study investigates how the excess risk of lower extremity amputations (amputations) in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) differs from the general population by diabetes duration, glycemic control, and renal complications. Research design and methods We analyzed data from people with type 1 DM from the Swedish National Diabetes Register without prior amputation from January 1998 to December 2013. Each person (n=36 872) was randomly matched with five controls by sex, age, and county (n=184 360) from the population without diabetes. All were followed until first amputation, death or end of follow-up. Results The overall adjusted HR for all amputation was 40.1 (95% CI 32.8 to 49.1) for type 1 DM versus controls. HR increased with longer diabetes duration. The incidence of amputation/1000 patient-years was 3.18 (95% CI 2.99 to 3.38) for type 1 DM and 0.07 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.08) for controls. The incidence decreased from 1998-2001 (3.09, 95% CI 2.56 to 3.62) to 2011-2013 (2.64, 95% CI 2.31 to 2.98). The HR for major amputations was lower than for minor amputations and decreased over the time period (p=0.0045). Worsening in glycemic control among patients with diabetes led to increased risk for amputation with an HR of 1.80 (95% CI 1.72 to 1.88) per 10 mmol/mol (1%) increase in hemoglobin A1c. Conclusions Although the absolute risk of amputation is relatively low, the overall excess risk was 40 times that of controls. Excess risk was substantially lower for those with good glycemic control and without renal complications, but excess risk still existed and is greatest for minor amputations. © 2019 Author(s) (or their employer(s)). Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

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