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Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Reveals the Presence of Octacalcium Phosphate and Whitlockite in Association with Bacteria-Free Zones Within the Mineralized Dental Biofilm

Journal article
Authors Furqan A. Shah
Published in Microscopy and Microanalysis
Volume 25
Issue 1
Pages 129-134
ISSN 1431-9276
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Pages 129-134
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1017/s143192761801565...
Keywords Apatite, dental implant, mineralized biofilm, octacalcium phosphate, Raman spectroscopy, whitlockite, electron-microscopy, crystals, hydroxyapatite, transformation, Materials Science, Microscopy, eng pt, 1987, calcified tissue international
Subject categories Biomaterials Science

Abstract

Through a correlative analytical approach encompassing backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and micro-Raman spectroscopy, the composition of the mineralized biofilm around a dental implant, retrieved due to peri-implantitis, was investigated. The mineralized biofilm contains two morphologically distinct regions: (i) bacteria-containing zones (Bact+), characterized by aggregations of unmineralized and mineralized bacteria, and intermicrobial mineralization, and (ii) bacteria-free zones (Bact-), comprised mainly of randomly oriented mineral platelets. Intramicrobial mineralization, within Bact+, appears as smooth, solid mineral deposits resembling the morphologies of dental plaque bacteria. Bact- is associated with micrometer-sized Mg-rich mineral nodules. The Ca/P ratio of Bact+ is higher than Bact-. The inorganic phase of Bact+ is carbonated apatite (CHAp), while that of Bact- is predominantly octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and whitlockite (WL) inclusions. Compared with native bone, the inorganic phase of Bact+ (i.e., CHAp) exhibits higher mineral crystallinity, lower carbonate content, and lower Ca/P, C/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Mg/P ratios. The various CaPs found within the mineralized dental biofilm (CHAp, OCP, and WL) are related to the local presence/absence of bacteria. In combination with BSE-SEM and EDX, micro-Raman spectroscopy is a valuable analytical tool for nondestructive investigation of mineralized dental biofilm composition and development.

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