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Outside the liver box: The gut microbiota as pivotal modulator of liver diseases

Review article
Authors Annika Wahlström
Published in Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Basis of Disease
Volume 1865
Issue 5
Pages 912-919
ISSN 0925-4439
Publication year 2019
Published at Wallenberg Laboratory
Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Pages 912-919
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2018.07...
Keywords Gut microbiota, Liver disease, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Alcoholic liver disease, Cholestatic, bile-acid metabolism, diet-induced obesity, intestinal microbiota, akkermansia-muciniphila, insulin-resistance, mouse models, mice, injury, serum, inflammation
Subject categories Immunology in the medical area, Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Abstract

The gut microbiota affects host physiology and has evolved as an important contributor to health and disease. Gut and liver are closely connected and communicate via the portal vein and the biliary system so the liver is constantly exposed to gut-derived bacterial products and metabolites. The intestinal barrier is important for maintaining physical and functional separation between microbes in the gut and the interior of the host and disruption of the barrier function can lead to bacterial translocation and increased leakage of bacterial metabolites. Liver diseases have been associated with dysbiotic changes in the gut microbiota and impaired gut barrier integrity, thus a future strategy to treat liver disease may be to target the gut microbiota and thereby restore the gut barrier function. This review will summarize and discuss studies that have shown a link between the gut microbiota and liver disease with the main focus on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease.

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