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Association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempts in bipolar I disorder.

Journal article
Authors Michael Bauer
Tasha Glenn
Martin Alda
Ole A Andreassen
Elias Angelopoulos
Raffaella Ardau
Yavuz Ayhan
Christopher Baethge
Rita Bauer
Bernhard T Baune
Claudia Becerra-Palars
Frank Bellivier
Robert H Belmaker
Michael Berk
Yuly Bersudsky
Şule Bicakci
Harriet Birabwa-Oketcho
Thomas D Bjella
Jorge Cabrera
Eric Y Wo Cheung
Maria Del Zompo
Seetal Dodd
Markus Donix
Bruno Etain
Andrea Fagiolini
Kostas N Fountoulakis
Mark A Frye
Ana Gonzalez-Pinto
John F Gottlieb
Paul Grof
Hirohiko Harima
Chantal Henry
Erkki T Isometsä
Sven Janno
Flávio Kapczinski
Mathias Kardell
Slim Khaldi
Sebastian Kliwicki
Barbara König
Timur L Kot
Rikke Krogh
Mauricio Kunz
Beny Lafer
Mikael Landén
Erik R Larsen
Ute Lewitzka
Rasmus W Licht
Carlos Lopez-Jaramillo
Glenda MacQueen
Mirko Manchia
Wendy Marsh
Mónica Martinez-Cengotitabengoa
Ingrid Melle
Fátima Meza-Urzúa
Mok Yee Ming
Scott Monteith
Gunnar Morken
Enrica Mosca
Anton A Mozzhegorov
Rodrigo Munoz
Starlin V Mythri
Fethi Nacef
Ravi K Nadella
Fabiano G Nery
René E Nielsen
Claire O'Donovan
Adel Omrani
Yamima Osher
Helle Østermark Sørensen
Uta Ouali
Yolanda Pica Ruiz
Maximilian Pilhatsch
Marco Pinna
Francisco D R da Ponte
Danilo Quiroz
Raj Ramesar
Natalie Rasgon
M S Reddy
Andreas Reif
Philipp Ritter
Janusz K Rybakowski
Kemal Sagduyu
Bharathram Sathur Raghuraman
Ângela M Scippa
Emanuel Severus
Christian Simhandl
Paul W Stackhouse
Dan J Stein
Sergio Strejilevich
Mythily Subramaniam
Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman
Kirsi Suominen
Hiromi Tagata
Yoshitaka Tatebayashi
Leonardo Tondo
Carla Torrent
Arne E Vaaler
Edgar Vares
Julia Veeh
Eduard Vieta
Biju Viswanath
Maria Yoldi-Negrete
Mark Zetin
Yosra Zgueb
Peter C Whybrow
Published in Journal of psychiatric research
Volume 113
Pages 1-9
ISSN 1879-1379
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry
Pages 1-9
Language en
Subject categories Psychiatry


In many international studies, rates of completed suicide and suicide attempts have a seasonal pattern that peaks in spring or summer. This exploratory study investigated the association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempt in patients with bipolar I disorder. Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun striking a surface area on Earth. Data were collected previously from 5536 patients with bipolar I disorder at 50 collection sites in 32 countries at a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres. Suicide related data were available for 3365 patients from 310 onset locations in 51 countries. 1047 (31.1%) had a history of suicide attempt. There was a significant inverse association between a history of suicide attempt and the ratio of mean winter solar insolation/mean summer solar insolation. This ratio is smallest near the poles where the winter insolation is very small compared to the summer insolation. This ratio is largest near the equator where there is relatively little variation in the insolation over the year. Other variables in the model that were positively associated with suicide attempt were being female, a history of alcohol or substance abuse, and being in a younger birth cohort. Living in a country with a state-sponsored religion decreased the association. (All estimated coefficients p < 0.01). In summary, living in locations with large changes in solar insolation between winter and summer may be associated with increased suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Further investigation of the impacts of solar insolation on the course of bipolar disorder is needed.

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