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Dopamine release dynamics in the tuberoinfundibular dopamine system.

Journal article
Authors Stefanos Stagkourakis
Johan Dunevall
Zahra Taleat
Andrew G Ewing
Christian Broberger
Published in The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
ISSN 1529-2401
Publication year 2019
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2339-1...
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...
Subject categories Analytical Chemistry

Abstract

The relationship between neuronal impulse activity and neurotransmitter release remains elusive. This issue is especially poorly understood in the neuroendocrine system, with its particular demands on periodically voluminous release of neurohormones at the interface of axon terminals and vasculature. A shortage of techniques with sufficient temporal resolution has hindered real-time monitoring of the secretion of the peptides that dominate among the neurohormones. The lactotropic axis provides an important exception in neurochemical identity, however, as pituitary prolactin secretion is primarily under monoaminergic control, via tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons projecting to the median eminence (ME). Here, we combined optogenetic stimulation and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to address dopamine release dynamics in the male mouse TIDA system. Imposing different discharge frequencies during brief (3 sec) stimulation of TIDA terminals in the ME revealed that dopamine output is maximal at 10 Hz, which was found to parallel the TIDA neuron action potential frequency distribution. Over more sustained stimulation periods (150 sec), maximal output occurred at 5 Hz. Application of the dopamine transporter blocker, methylphenidate, significantly increased dopamine levels in the ME, supporting a functional role of the transporter at the neurons' terminals. Lastly, TIDA neuron stimulation at the cell body yielded perisomatic release of dopamine, which may contribute to an ultra-fast negative feedback mechanism to constrain TIDA electrical activity. Together, these data shed light on how spiking patterns in the neuroendocrine system translate to vesicular release towards the pituitary and identify how dopamine dynamics are controlled in the TIDA system at different cellular compartments.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTA central question in neuroscience is the complex relationship between neuronal discharge activity and transmitter release. By combining optogenetic stimulation and voltammetry, we address this issue in dopamine neurons of the neuroendocrine system, which faces particular spatiotemporal demands on exocytotic release; large amounts of neurohormone need to be secreted into the portal capillaries with precise timing to adapt to physiological requirements. Our data show that release is maximal around the neurons' default firing frequency. We further provide support for functional dopamine transport at the neurovascular terminals, shedding light on a long-standing controversy about the existence of neuroendocrine transmitter reuptake. Finally, we show that dopamine release occurs also at the somatodendritic level, providing a substrate for an ultra-short autoregulatory feedback loop.

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