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Toxin-Based Mucosal Adjuvants

Chapter in book
Authors Ali M Harandi
Nils Y Lycke
Published in Immunopotentiators in Modern Vaccines (Second Edition)
Pages 377-397
ISBN 9780128040195
Publication year 2016
Published at Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Pages 377-397
Language en
Keywords CT and LT, Mucosal adjuvants, Mucosal immunity, Toxin
Subject categories Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology


Most infections are caused by pathogens that access the body at mucosal sites. Hence development of vaccines to prevent local infection or invasion of pathogens represents a top global health priority. Because mucosal immunity requires priming at the mucosal site, mucosal vaccination has attracted much interest, but few mucosal vaccines have been developed. Although only a handful of mucosal vaccines have been approved for human use, many candidate vaccines are currently being tested in clinical trials. Most of these vaccines are live attenuated vaccines, whereas only a few recombinant protein/subunit-based vaccines are being developed. This is largely due to the lack of safe and potent mucosal adjuvants. Over the past decade, a number of immunomodulatory agents, including toxin-based adjuvants, Toll-like receptor mimetics, and non TLR-targeting immunostimulators have shown promise for mucosal administration in experimental animal models. However, their possible use in humans remains to be established. Toxin-based adjuvants are among the most widely studied mucosal adjuvants today, but separating their toxicity from the adjuvant function is critical for their clinical use. This book chapter, albeit not exhaustively, provides an overview of the progress and challenges in the development of toxin-based adjuvants, since these could be viewed as prototype mucosal adjuvants for future mucosal vaccines. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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