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Muscle pathology in Vici syndrome-A case study with a novel mutation in EPG5 and a summary of the literature.

Journal article
Authors Carola Oldfors Hedberg
Niklas Darin
Anders Oldfors
Published in Neuromuscular disorders : NMD
Volume 27
Issue 8
Pages 771-776
ISSN 1873-2364
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Pathology
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Pediatrics
Pages 771-776
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2017.05.00...
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...
Subject categories Pediatrics

Abstract

Vici syndrome is a disorder characterized by myopathy, cardiomyopathy, agenesis of the corpus callosum, immunodeficiency, cataracts, hypopigmentation, microcephaly, gross developmental delay and failure to thrive. It is caused by mutations in EPG5, which encodes a protein involved in the autophagy pathway. Although myopathy is part of the syndrome, few publications have described the muscle pathology. We present a detailed morphological analysis in a boy with Vici syndrome due to a novel homozygous one-base deletion in EPG5 (c.784delA), and we review the histopathological findings from previous reports. Muscle biopsy was performed at three months of age and demonstrated small vacuolated fibers, frequently with internal nuclei, and expressing developmental and fast myosin isoforms. There was an increase in acid phosphatase activity in the small fibers, which also showed LAMP-2 upregulation, glycogen accumulation and contained numerous p62-positive inclusions and some lipid droplets. Electron microscopy demonstrated hypoplastic fibers with massive glycogen accumulation and extensive disorganization of the myofibrils. This study expands the muscle pathological features of Vici syndrome and demonstrates a pattern of vacuolar myopathy with glycogen storage and immature, hypoplastic and atrophic muscle fibers. Increased lysosomes and accumulation of p62 are in line with a disturbance of the autophagic pathway as an essential part of the pathogenesis.

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