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Outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis receiving extended dosing regimens of darbepoetin alfa: long-term results of the EXTEND observational cohort study

Journal article
Authors J. C. Galle
J. Addison
M. G. Suranyi
K. Claes
S. Di Giulio
A. Guerin
Hans Herlitz
I. Kiss
M. Farouk
N. Manamley
G. Wirnsberger
C. Winearls
Published in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Volume 31
Issue 12
Pages 2073-2085
ISSN 0931-0509
Publication year 2016
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Pages 2073-2085
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfw047
https://gup.ub.gu.se/file/206867
Keywords anaemia, chronic kidney disease, darbepoetin alfa, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, extended dosing, ERYTHROPOIESIS-STIMULATING AGENTS, POSITION STATEMENT, HEMOGLOBIN, CONCENTRATIONS, ANEMIA MANAGEMENT, PRACTICE ERBP, DE-NOVO, EVERY, VARIABILITY, MORTALITY, LEVEL
Subject categories Kidney diseases

Abstract

Background. Extended dosing of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) darbepoetin alfa (DA) once biweekly or monthly reduces anaemia treatment burden. This observational study assessed outcomes and dosing patterns in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis (CKD-NoD) commencing extended dosing of DA. Methods. Adult CKD-NoD patients starting extended dosing of DA in Europe or Australia in June 2006 or later were followed up until December 2012. Outcomes included haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, ESA dosing, mortality rates and receipt of dialysis and renal transplantation. Subgroup analyses were conducted for selected outcomes. Results. Of 6035 enrolled subjects, 5723 (94.8%) met analysis criteria; 1795 (29.7%) received dialysis and 238 (3.9%) underwent renal transplantation. Mean (standard deviation) Hb concentration at commencement of extended dosing was 11.0 (1.5) g/dL. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] Hb 12 months after commencement of extended dosing (primary outcome) was 11.6 g/dL (11.5, 11.6) overall and was similar across countries, with no differences between subjects previously treated with an ESA versus ESA-naive subjects, subjects with versus without prior renal transplant or diabetics versus non-diabetics. Weekly ESA dose gradually decreased following commencement of extended DA dosing and was similar across subgroups. The decrease in weekly DA dose was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of patients receiving iron therapy. Hb concentrations declined following changes in ESA labels and treatment guidelines. The mortality rate (95% CI) was 7.06 (6.68, 7.46) deaths per 100 years of follow-up. Subjects alive at study end had stable Hb concentrations in the preceding year, while those who died had lower and declining Hb concentrations in their last year. Conclusions. Long-term, extended dosing of DA maintained Hb concentrations in patients already treated with an ESA and corrected and maintained Hb in ESA-naive patients.

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