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Midwives' Management during the Second Stage of Labor in Relation to Second-Degree Tears-An Experimental Study.

Journal article
Authors Malin Edqvist
Ingegerd Hildingsson
Margareta Mollberg
Ingela Lundgren
Helena Lindgren
Published in Birth
Volume 44
Issue 1
Pages 86–94
ISSN 0730-7659
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Health and Care Sciences
Pages 86–94
Language en
Keywords birth position; midwifery intervention; second-degree tears; spontaneous pushing; two-step delivery
Subject categories Nursing, Reproductive health, Health Sciences


INTRODUCTION: Most women who give birth for the first time experience some form of perineal trauma. Second-degree tears contribute to long-term consequences for women and are a risk factor for occult anal sphincter injuries. The objective of this study was to evaluate a multifaceted midwifery intervention designed to reduce second-degree tears among primiparous women. METHODS: An experimental cohort study where a multifaceted intervention consisting of 1) spontaneous pushing, 2) all birth positions with flexibility in the sacro-iliac joints, and 3) a two-step head-to-body delivery was compared with standard care. Crude and Adjusted OR (95% CI) were calculated between the intervention and the standard care group, for the various explanatory variables. RESULTS: A total of 597 primiparous women participated in the study, 296 in the intervention group and 301 in the standard care group. The prevalence of second-degree tears was lower in the intervention group: [Adj. OR 0.53 (95% CI 0.33-0.84)]. A low prevalence of episiotomy was found in both groups (1.7 and 3.0%). The prevalence of epidural analgesia was 61.1 percent. Despite the high use of epidural analgesia, the midwives in the intervention group managed to use the intervention. CONCLUSION: It is possible to reduce second-degree tears among primiparous women with the use of a multifaceted midwifery intervention without increasing the prevalence of episiotomy. Furthermore, the intervention is possible to employ in larger maternity wards with midwives caring for women with both low- and high-risk pregnancies.

Page Manager: Webmaster|Last update: 9/11/2012

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