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Dependence of Proximal GC Boxes and Binding Transcription Factors in the Regulation of Basal and Valproic Acid-Induced Expression of t-PA.

Journal article
Authors Erik Ulfhammer
Pia Larsson
Mia Magnusson
Lena M S Carlsson
Niklas Bergh
Sverker Jern
Published in International journal of vascular medicine
Volume 2016
Pages Article ID: 7928681
ISSN 2090-2824
Publication year 2016
Published at Wallenberg Laboratory
Pages Article ID: 7928681
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7928681
Subject categories Cardiovascular medicine

Abstract

Objective. Endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release is a pivotal response to protect the circulation from occluding thrombosis. We have shown that the t-PA gene is epigenetically regulated and greatly induced by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA). We now investigated involvement of known t-PA promoter regulatory elements and evaluated dependence of potential interacting transcription factors/cofactors. Methods. A reporter vector with an insert, separately mutated at either the t-PA promoter CRE or GC box II or GC box III elements, was transfected into HT-1080 and HUVECs and challenged with VPA. HUVECs were targeted with siRNA against histone acetyl transferases (HAT) and selected transcription factors from the Sp/KLF family. Results. An intact VPA-response was observed with CRE mutated constructs, whereas mutation of GC boxes II and III reduced the magnitude of the induction by 54 and 79% in HT-1080 and 49 and 50% in HUVECs, respectively. An attenuated induction of t-PA mRNA was observed after Sp2, Sp4, and KLF5 depletion. KLF2 and p300 (HAT) were identified as positive regulators of basal t-PA expression and Sp4 and KLF9 as repressors. Conclusion. VPA-induced t-PA expression is dependent on the proximal GC boxes in the t-PA promoter and may involve interactions with Sp2, Sp4, and KLF5.

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