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Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology

Journal article
Authors Muhammad Nawaz
Farah Fatima
Krishna C. Vallabhaneni
Patrice Penfornis
Hadi Valadi
Karin Ekström
Sharad Kholia
Jason D.Whitt
Joseph D. Fernandes
Radhika Pochampally
Jeremy A. Squire
Giovanni Camussi
Published in Stem Cells International
Volume 2016
Issue 1073140
ISSN 1687-966X
Publication year 2016
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1073140
Subject categories Cell and Molecular Biology

Abstract

Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

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