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Efficacy of fish intake on vitamin D status: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Journal article
Authors U. Lehmann
H. R. Gjessing
F. Hirche
A. Mueller-Belecke
O. A. Gudbrandsen
P. M. Ueland
G. Mellgren
L. Lauritzen
Helen Lindqvist
A. L. Hansen
A. T. Erkkila
G. K. Pot
G. I. Stangl
J. Dierkes
Published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume 102
Issue 4
Pages 837-847
ISSN 0002-9165
Publication year 2015
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition
Pages 837-847
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.105395
Keywords fish intake, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial, vitamin D, intervention studies, 25(OH)D, HEART-RATE-VARIABILITY, D DEFICIENCY, FATTY FISH, SERUM, 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN-D, DIETARY REQUIREMENT, COLORECTAL-CANCER, RISK-FACTORS, LIFE-STYLE, CONSUMPTION, DISEASE
Subject categories Nutrition and Dietetics

Abstract

Background: It is well known that fish is the major natural source of vitamin D in the diet; therefore, this meta-analysis investigated the influence of fish consumption in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. Objective: A literature search was carried out in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library (up to February 2014) for RCTs that investigated the effect of fish consumption on 25(OH)D concentrations in comparison to other dietary interventions. Results: Seven articles and 2 unpublished study data sets with 640 subjects and 14 study groups met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with controls, the consumption of fish increased 25(OH)D concentrations, on average, by 4.4 nmol/L (95% CI: 1.7, 7.1 nmol/L; P < 0.0001, I-2 = 25%; 9 studies). The type of the fish also played a key role: the consumption of fatty fish resulted in a mean difference of 6.8 nmol/L (95% CI: 3.7, 9.9 nmol/L; P < 0.0001, I-2 = 0%; 7 study groups), whereas for lean fish the mean difference was 1.9 nmol/L (95% CI: -2.3, 6.0 nmol/L; P < 0.38, I-2 = 37%; 7 study groups). Short-term studies (4-8 wk) showed a mean difference of 3.8 nmol/L (95% CI: 0.6, 6.9 nmol/L; P < 0.02, I-2 = 38%; 10 study groups), whereas in long-term studies (similar to 6 mo) the mean difference was 8.3 nmol/L (95% CI: 2.1, 14.5 nmol/L; P < 0.009, I-2 = 0%; 4 study groups). Conclusion: As the major food source of vitamin D, fish consumption increases concentrations of 25(OH)D, although recommended fish intakes cannot optimize vitamin D status.

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