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Time-of-flight of He ions from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0)

Journal article
Authors K. Frans G. Olofson
Leif Holmlid
Published in International Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Volume 374
Pages 33-38
ISSN 1387-3806
Publication year 2014
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Pages 33-38
Language en
Keywords Fusion, α-Particle, Scattering, Time-of-flight, MeV energy
Subject categories Molecular physics, Fusion


Time-of-flight (TOF) energy measurements of ions from pulsed laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0) have been accomplished. The scintillation detector is a fast plastic scintillator preceded by a thin Al foil, with photo-multiplier detection of the scintillations. Signal is normally observed only when the laser focus is moved over the target, which means that the process is critically dependent on the state of the D(0) layer. Ions require up to 1 MeV u−1 to penetrate through the Al foil and the observation of a signal in this setup proves directly that nuclear processes take place. Most TOF peaks agree with 4He ions ejected with 3.5–3.6 MeV energy in the D + D nuclear fusion process. These ions are further delayed by collisions with deuterium atoms or ultra-dense deuterium clusters. All probable collision processes of 4He and 3He are observed. T emission is not observed, as expected due to the large reaction rate for T + D. To exclude that after-pulses in the photo-multipliers can give a similar signal, two flight lengths, two photo-multipliers with several mounting methods, several optical filters, and both oscilloscope and pulse-counting detection methods have been employed to study the TOF distributions.

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