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Majorana fermion description of the Kondo lattice: Variational and path integral approach

Journal article
Authors Johan Nilsson
Matteo Bazzanella
Published in Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Volume 88
Pages artikel nr 045112
ISSN 1098-0121
Publication year 2013
Published at Department of Physics (GU)
Pages artikel nr 045112
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.88.0451...
Keywords Majorana fermions, kondo lattice, path integral
Subject categories Magnetism, Electronic structure

Abstract

All models of interacting electrons and spins can be reformulated as theories of interacting Majorana fermions. We consider the Kondo lattice model that admits a symmetric representation in terms of Majorana fermions. In the first part of this paper we study two variational states, which are natural in the Majorana for-mulation. At weak coupling a state in which three Majorana fermions tend to propagate together as bound objects is favored, while for strong coupling a better description is obtained by having deconfined Majorana fermions. This way of looking at the Kondo lattice offers an alternative phenomenological description of this model. In the second part of the paper we provide a detailed derivation of the discretized path integral formulation of any Majorana fermion theory. This general formulation will be useful as a starting point for further studies, such as quantum Monte Carlo, perturbative expansions, and renormalization group analysis. As an example we use this path integral formalism to formulate a finite temperature variational calculation, which generalizes the ground state variational calculation of the first part. This calculation shows how the formation of three-body bound states of Majorana fermions can be handled in the path integral formalism.

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