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Cross-validation of the Depression, Anxiety, and Positive Outlook Scale (DAPOS) for Clinical Use

Journal article
Authors Patricia Olaya-Contreras
Jorma Styf
Mari Lundberg
Bengt Jansson
Published in The Clinical journal of pain
Volume 27
Issue 4
Pages 330-337
ISSN 0749-8047
Publication year 2011
Published at Department of Psychology
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics
Pages 330-337
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0b013e318202...
Keywords anxiety; depression; positive outlook; measurement invariance; psychometric; cross-cultural validity
Subject categories Orthopaedics

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate different psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Positive Outlook Scale (DAPOS) in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain in an orthopedic setting. METHODS: A total of 449 participants took part in the study, including 288 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and 161 participants in a reference group. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the constructs of DAPOS were investigated across sex and diagnostic groups. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory were used for measures of convergent validity. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test measurement invariance of the theoretical constructs of DAPOS. RESULTS: Internal consistency was good for all 3 constructs, and correlations concerned with convergent validity were found to be acceptable to good. With regard to cross-validation, the 3 constructs of DAPOS were strictly measurement invariant with respect to sex. Across diagnostic groups, the constructs of anxiety and positive outlook were almost strictly measurement invariant, although there were some restrictions of measurement invariance for the construct of depression. DISCUSSION: To be able to rely on an instrument with as few items as DAPOS, the cross-validation of its constructs for sex and diagnostic groups is a valuable information, particularly when investigated in patients with musculoskeletal pain. Based on these results, we recommend that DAPOS could replace longer and more time-consuming screening tests in clinical settings.

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