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Bone augmentation for single tooth implants: A review of the literature

Journal article
Authors Bertil Friberg
Published in European Journal of Oral Implantology
Volume 9
Issue 2
Pages S123-S134
ISSN 1756-2406
Publication year 2016
Published at Institute of Odontology
Pages S123-S134
Language en
Keywords bone augmentation, bone graft, review, single implants, randomized controlled-trial, controlled clinical-trial, sinus floor, elevation, follow-up, posterior maxilla, anterior maxilla, ridge, augmentation, immediate implants, bovine bone, case series, Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine
Subject categories Dentistry

Abstract

Aim: To analyse data on bone augmentation at single-tooth implants with regard to the type of graft materials, the stability of grafts over time, reported time span towards implant placement, implant survival rates, implant marginal bone maintenance and possible complications. Material and methods: A literature review resulted in 585 titles after exclusion of duplicates. Analyses of article titles and abstracts reduced the number to 93 studies, which were subsequently full-text analysed. After the final selection, a total of 24 studies were included, of which 13 reported on single implants and horizontal/vertical augmentation (onlay), 10 focused on single implants and sinus augmentation (inlay), and one study presented the outcome of single implants and distraction osteogenesis. Results: All bone materials, i.e. autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, were used with comparable satisfactory results, allowing for placement of 7 to 10 mm-long implants. Stability of bone graft volume over time was sparsely documented. Some onlay autografts tended to resorb early i.e. prior to implant placement, but minor bone resorption was also seen for other grafts over time. A continuous but small bone resorption of inlay autografts and alloplasts was seen over time for the few sites recorded. A staged approach predominated for the onlay grafts, with implants placed 3 to 6 months post-grafting, and overall a majority of these implants (347/363) were submerged. For the inlay graft procedures almost all implants were immediately inserted at the time of grafting, and the majority of these implants (253/256) were submerged. A total of five and two implant failures were registered during the various study periods for the onlays and inlays, respectively. Marginal bone conditions, around implants in grafted sites, were comparable to what has generally been reported for non-grafted sites. Conclusions: Bone augmentation for the single-tooth implant is a viable treatment option with predictable graft and implant outcomes.

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