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Resonance frequency measurements of implant stability in vivo. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of resonance frequency measurements on implants in the edentulous and partially dentate maxilla.

Journal article
Authors N Meredith
K Book
Bertil Friberg
Torsten Jemt
Lars Sennerby
Published in Clinical oral implants research
Volume 8
Issue 3
Pages 226-33
ISSN 0905-7161
Publication year 1997
Published at Institute of Odontology
Institute of Surgical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Pages 226-33
Language en
Keywords Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Dental Abutments, Dental Implantation, Endosseous, Dental Implants, Dental Prosthesis Retention, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Osseointegration, Reproducibility of Results, Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted, Transducers, Vibration
Subject categories Surgical research


The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the use of resonance frequency measurements in the clinical measurement of implant stability. Resonance frequency measurements are undertaken by measuring the response of a small transducer attached to an implant fixture or abutment. Two groups of patients were selected for study. Group A comprised 9 patients who had a total of 56 implants placed. Resonance frequency measurements were made at fixture installation and repeated 8 months later at abutment connection. The resonance frequency of the implant/transducer system increased for 50 out of the 56 implants from a mean value of 7473 Hz +/- 127 Hz (P < 0.05) to a mean of 7915 Hz +/- 112 Hz (P < 0.05). Two implants had failed to integrate and the resonance frequency of these had fallen. Group B comprised 9 patients who had been provided with fixed prostheses and had a total of 52 implants placed. They were examined 5 years after fixture placement and the prostheses removed. All implants were judged clinically to be osseointegrated. The level of the marginal bone around each implant was calculated by measuring the number of exposed threads on intraoral periapical radiographs and added to the length of each abutment to give a value termed the effective implant length (EIL). Measurements indicated a correlation (R = -0.78, P < 0.01) between EIL and resonance frequency. The results support the hypothesis that the resonance frequency of an implant/transducer system is related to the height of the implant not surrounded by bone and the stability of the implant/tissue interface as determined by the absence of clinical mobility.

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