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Diarrheal bacterial pathogens and multi-resistant enterobacteria in the Choqueyapu River in La Paz, Bolivia

Journal article
Authors J. Guzman-Otazo
Lucia Gonzales-Siles
V. Poma
Johan Bengtsson-Palme
K. Thorell
Carl-Fredrik Flach
V. Iniguez
A. Sjoling
Published in PLoS ONE
Volume 14
Issue 1
ISSN 1932-6203
Publication year 2019
Published at Centre for antibiotic resistance research, CARe
Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Infectious Medicine
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.021...
Keywords enterotoxigenic escherichia-coli, beta-lactamase genes, multiplex pcr, assays, ctx-m, water-quality, waste-water, antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic-resistance, klebsiella-pneumoniae, molecular characterization, Science & Technology - Other Topics
Subject categories Infectious Medicine

Abstract

Water borne diarrheal pathogens might accumulate in river water and cause contamination of drinking and irrigation water. The La Paz River basin, including the Choqueyapu River, flows through La Paz city in Bolivia where it is receiving sewage, and residues from inhabitants, hospitals, and industry. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we determined the quantity and occurrence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC), Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella spp. and total enterobacteria in river water, downstream agricultural soil, and irrigated crops, during one year of sampling. The most abundant and frequently detected genes were gapA and eltB, indicating presence of enterobacteria and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) carrying the heat labile toxin, respectively. Pathogen levels in the samples were significantly positively associated with high water conductivity and low water temperature. In addition, a set of bacterial isolates from water, soil and crops were analyzed by PCR for presence of the genes bla(CTX-M), bla(KPC), bla(NDM), bla(VIM) and bla(OXA-48). Four isolates were found to be positive for bla(CTX-M) genes and whole genome sequencing identified them as E. coli and one Enterobacter cloacae. The E. coli isolates belonged to the emerging, globally disseminated, multi-resistant E. coli lineages ST648, ST410 and ST162. The results indicate not only a high potential risk of transmission of diarrheal diseases by the consumption of contaminated water and vegetables but also the possibility of antibiotic resistance transfer from the environment to the community.

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Utskriftsdatum: 2019-10-23