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Infectious complications after multivisceral transplantation in adults.

Journal article
Authors Mihai Oltean
Gustaf Herlenius
Markus Gäbel
Vanda Friman
Michael Olausson
Published in Transplantation proceedings
Volume 38
Issue 8
Pages 2683-5
ISSN 0041-1345
Publication year 2006
Published at Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Infectious Medicine
Institute of Clinical Sciences
Pages 2683-5
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2...
Keywords Adult, Aged, Bacterial Infections, epidemiology, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Immunosuppression, methods, Infection, epidemiology, Male, Middle Aged, Mycoses, epidemiology, Postoperative Complications, microbiology, Retrospective Studies, Time Factors, Viscera, transplantation
Subject categories Medical and Health Sciences

Abstract

It is thought that multivisceral transplantation requires high levels of immunosuppression and therefore, patients run an increased risk of infection. We retrospectively reviewed our center's experience with clinically relevant infectious complications. PATIENTS: Between 2000 and 2005, 10 adult patients underwent multivisceral transplantation. Two immunosuppression protocols were used: between 2000 and 2003, a high immunosupression protocol (six patients; daclizumab induction, tacrolimus trough levels >20 ng/mL and steroids) and an immunomodulatory, low imunosuppression scheme from 2003 onward (four patients; ATG induction, tacrolimus levels 5 to 10 ng/mL, no steroids). Standard antimicrobial prophylaxis consisted of vancomycin, meropenem, and amphotericin B. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis was used in all but first two cases. Donor and recipient CMV status were D+/R+ (n = 7), D+/R- (n = 2), D-/R+ (n = 1). RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 627 days (range, 19 to 2207 days). A total of 47 infectious episodes were recorded in all patients (range 1 to 14 per patient). The etiology was bacterial in 32 (69%), viral in 8 (17%), and fungal in 7 (14%) cases. The most frequent were catheter related (n = 13) followed by respiratory (n = 7), intraabdominal (n = 6), and wound infections (n = 5). Symptomatic viral infection of the graft (CMV gastritis or enteritis, adenoviral enteritis) was also encountered. Epstein-Barr virus was transiently detected in the serum of nine patients, one of whom later developed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Three deaths all among patients receiving high immunosuppression were owing to infectious complications: pulmonary PTLD at 4 months posttransplantation, ruptured mycotic aneurysm after 8 weeks, and sepsis after 3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Infections accounted for a high morbidity after multivisceral transplantation, representing the leading cause of mortality. Exhaustive monitoring, early antimicrobial intervention, and lower immunosuppression may improve the outcome.

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