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Periodontal conditions in male adolescents using smokeless tobacco (moist snuff).

Journal article
Authors Ulrika Montén
Jan Wennström
Per Ramberg
Published in Journal of clinical periodontology
Volume 33
Issue 12
Pages 863-8
ISSN 0303-6979
Publication year 2006
Published at Institute of Odontology
Pages 863-8
Language en
Keywords Adolescent, Adult, Alveolar Bone Loss, classification, radiography, Dental Plaque, classification, Gingival Recession, classification, pathology, Gingivitis, classification, Humans, Incisor, pathology, Male, Maxilla, Oral Hygiene, Periodontal Attachment Loss, classification, Periodontal Diseases, classification, Periodontal Index, Periodontal Pocket, classification, Radiography, Bitewing, Tobacco, Smokeless, Toothbrushing
Subject categories Dentistry, Periodontology


AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential association of the use of smokeless tobacco (moist snuff) on the periodontal conditions of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A subject sample of one hundred and three 19-year-old male individuals (33 snuff users, 70 controls) living in G?teborg, Sweden, were clinically examined with regard to oral hygiene, gingivitis, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and gingival recession. Bitewing radiographs were obtained for assessments of alveolar bone level. Information about tobacco and oral hygiene habits was obtained by a structured questionnaire. Student 's t-test, chi(2)-test and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean plaque and gingivitis scores in snuff-users were 59% (SD 21.0) and 47% (18.6), respectively, and in controls 64% (22.4) and 50% (18.3), respectively. The average PPD and CAL in snuff-users amounted to 2.3 mm (0.3) and 0.2 mm (0.1), respectively, and in controls 2.4 mm (0.3) and 0.1 mm (0.1) (p>0.05), respectively. The mean bone level was 1.3 mm (0.2) in both groups. The prevalence of subjects showing recession was 42% among snuff-users and 17% among controls (p=0.006). In snuff users, an average of 4% (0.9) of the teeth showed recession, compared with 1% (0.3) in controls (p<0.001). Limiting the analysis to the maxillary anterior tooth region, 33% of the snuff-users and 10% of the controls presented recessions (p=0.002). The use of snuff entailed an OR=5.1 to have gingival recessions. CONCLUSION: In the present population sample of adolescents, the use of smokeless tobacco (moist snuff) was not associated with the presence of periodontal disease except for a significantly high prevalence of gingival recessions.

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