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Comparison of biochemical markers of bone metabolism between conventional labial and lingual fixed orthodontic appliances

Journal article
Authors A. N. Gujar
H. A. Baeshen
A. Alhazmi
M. S. Ghoussoub
A. T. Raj
S. Bhandi
S. C. Sarode
K. H. Awan
Dowen Birkhed
S. Patil
Published in Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Volume 23
Issue 4
Pages 568-573
ISSN 1119-3077
Publication year 2020
Published at Institute of Odontology
Pages 568-573
Language en
Keywords Biomarkers, bone remodeling, cytokines, gingival crevicular fluid, interleukins, orthodontic appliances, gingival crevicular fluid, tooth movement, cytokines, interleukin-8, therapy, General & Internal Medicine
Subject categories Dentistry


Objectives: The applied orthodontic force causes remodeling of the periodontium through the selective release of cytokines causing resorption of bone, enabling controlled movement of the tooth. This study compared the cytokine profile between patients treated with conventional labial and lingual fixed orthodontic appliances. Patients and Methods: The study included 80 patients in need of orthodontic treatment, out of which 40 patients were treated by the labial fixed appliance and 40 by the lingual fixed appliance. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) specimens were gathered from both the groups using a microcapillary pipette. The samples were collected at the beginning of the treatment and after 21 days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to evaluate the cytokine levels. Results: Interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, 1 beta, 2, 8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were significantly high (P < 0.001) in GCF of participants treated with conventional labial fixed appliance. IL-1 alpha, 1 beta, 2, 6, 8, and TNF-alpha levels were significantly high (P < 0.001) in GCF of participants treated by the lingual fixed appliance. The concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta were increased higher than other cytokines in both the treatment groups. Conclusion: Overall, the lingual fixed appliance had higher cytokine levels than a labial fixed appliance. Analyzing the GCF cytokine levels during orthodontic treatment could provide an ideal platform for monitoring the progress of the treatment.

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