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Effect of Kinase Inhibiting RNase Attenuator (KIRA) Compounds on the Formation of Face-to-Face Dimers of Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1: Insights from Computational Modeling

Journal article
Authors Antonio Carlesso
C. Chintha
A. M. Gorman
A. Samali
Leif A Eriksson
Published in International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume 20
Issue 22
ISSN 1422-0067
Publication year 2019
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225538
Keywords IRE1, KIRA, dimer formation, unfolded protein response, protein-protein, docking, molecular dynamics simulations, allosteric inhibition, protein, ire1-alpha, efficient, dynamics, docking, server, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Chemistry
Subject categories Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Abstract

Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1 alpha) is a transmembrane dual kinase/ribonuclease protein involved in propagation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha is currently being explored as a potential drug target due to the growing evidence of its role in variety of disease conditions. Upon activation, IRE1 cleaves X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA through its RNase domain. Small molecules targeting the kinase site are known to either increase or decrease RNase activity, but the allosteric relationship between the kinase and RNase domains of IRE1 alpha is poorly understood. Subsets of IRE1 kinase inhibitors (known as "KIRA" compounds) bind to the ATP-binding site and allosterically impede the RNase activity. The KIRA compounds are able to regulate the RNase activity by stabilizing the monomeric form of IRE1 alpha. In the present work, computational analysis, protein-protein and protein-ligand docking studies, and molecular dynamics simulations were applied to different IRE1 dimer systems to provide structural insights into the perturbation of IRE1 dimers by small molecules kinase inhibitors that regulate the RNase activity. By analyzing structural deviations, energetic components, and the number of hydrogen bonds in the interface region, we propose that the KIRA inhibitors act at an early stage of IRE1 activation by interfering with IRE1 face-to-face dimer formation thus disabling the activation of the RNase domain. This work sheds light on the mechanism of action of KIRA compounds and may assist in development of further compounds in, for example, cancer therapeutics. The work also provides information on the sequence of events and protein-protein interactions initiating the unfolded protein response.

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