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The SweLL Language Learner Corpus: From Design to Annotation

Journal article
Authors Elena Volodina
Lena Granstedt
Arild Matsson
Beáta Megyesi
Ildikó Pilán
Julia Prentice
Dan Rosén
Lisa Rudebeck
Carl-Johan Schenström
Gunlög Sundberg
Mats Wirén
Published in Northern European Journal of Language Technology
Volume 6
ISSN 2000-1533
Publication year 2019
Published at Department of Swedish
Language en
Keywords SweLL, Learner Corpus Research (LCR), Second Language Infrastructure, Correction annotation, Error annotation, normalization, pseudonymization, SVALA
Subject categories Language Technology (Computational Linguistics), Learning, General Language Studies and Linguistics, Linguistics, Scandinavian languages, Specific Languages, Languages and Literature


The article presents a new language learner corpus for Swedish, SweLL, and the methodology from collection and pesudonymisation to protect personal information of learners to annotation adapted to second language learning. The main aim is to deliver a well-annotated corpus of essays written by second language learners of Swedish and make it available for research through a browsable environment. To that end, a new annotation tool and a new project management tool have been implemented, – both with the main purpose to ensure reliability and quality of the final corpus. In the article we discuss reasoning behind metadata selection, principles of gold corpus compilation and argue for separation of normalization from correction annotation.

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