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The frequency of circulating integrin alpha 4 beta 7(+) cells correlates with protection against Helicobacter pylori infection in immunized mice

Journal article
Authors S. Akter
Frida Jeverstam
Anna Lundgren
Maria K Magnusson
A. Walduck
F. Qadri
T. R. Bhuiyan
Sukanya Raghavan
Published in Helicobacter
Volume 24
Issue 6
ISSN 1083-4389
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12658
Keywords alpha 4 beta 7, CD4(+)T cells, Helicobacter pylori, IL-17A and IFN gamma, inflammatory monocytes, cholera-toxin, escherichia-coli, vaccination, responses, lymphocytes, adjuvant, urease, mmct, Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Microbiology
Subject categories Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Microbiology in the medical area

Abstract

Background Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is the cause of peptic ulcers in a subpopulation of individuals and a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. A vaccine against H pylori infection can prevent the acquisition of the infection and protect against reinfections. Clinical trials to date evaluating the efficacy of H pylori vaccines in human challenge models have shown moderate to poor protection with difficulties in predicting efficacy. Thus, while further studies are needed to design an effective vaccine, we also need to find relevant correlates for vaccine efficacy. Objective To find immune correlates to vaccine efficacy, the frequencies of neutrophils, eosinophils and inflammatory monocytes and CD4(+) T-cell memory and mucosa homing integrin alpha 4 beta 7(+) cells were assessed by flow cytometry in the blood of mice after vaccination. Materials and Methods H pylori antigens and cholera toxin or the multiple mutant CT (mmCT) were administered via the sublingual (SL) and intragastric route (IG). The vaccinated mice were infected with H pylori strain SS1 bacteria, and colonization in the stomach and immune responses were evaluated. Results The H pylori vaccine was effective in reducing bacterial load in the stomach of mice and enhancing immune responses compared to unvaccinated infection controls. In the blood of mice after SL or IG route of vaccination, we observed changes in frequencies of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets compared to infection controls. Remarkably, the frequency of circulating mucosal homing alpha 4 beta 7(+)CD4(+) T cells after vaccination correlated with low bacterial load in the stomach of individual mice irrespective of the immunization route. Conclusions Our study shows that the innate and adaptive immune cell subsets can be measured in the blood after vaccination and that increased frequency of alpha 4 beta 7(+)CD4(+) in the blood after immunization could be used as a predictive marker for the efficacy of vaccine against H pylori infection.

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