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Fluid-based proteomics targeted on pathophysiological processes and pathologies in neurodegenerative diseases.

Journal article
Authors Ann Brinkmalm-Westman
Erik Portelius
Gunnar Brinkmalm
Josef Pannee
Rahil Dahlén
Johan Gobom
Kaj Blennow
Henrik Zetterberg
Published in Journal of neurochemistry
ISSN 1471-4159
Publication year 2018
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.14594
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...
Subject categories Neurochemistry

Abstract

Neurodegenerative dementias constitute a broad group of diseases in which abnormally folded proteins accumulate in specific brain regions and result in tissue reactions that eventually cause neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. Depending on where in the brain this happens, symptoms appear which may be used to classify the disorders on clinical grounds. However, brain changes in neurodegenerative dementias start to accumulate many years prior to symptom onset and there is a poor correlation between the clinical picture and what pathology that is the most likely to cause it. Thus, novel drug candidates having disease-modifying effects that is targeting the underlying pathology and changes the course of the disease needs to be defined using objective biomarker-based measures since the clinical symptoms are often non-specific and overlap between different disorders. Furthermore, the treatment should ideally be initiated as soon as symptoms are evident or when biomarkers confirm an underlying pathology (pre-clinical phase of the disease) to reduce irreversible damage to, for example, neurons, synapses and axons. Clinical trials in the pre-clinical phase bring a greater importance to biomarkers since by definition the clinical effects are difficult or slow to discern in a population that is not yet clinically affected. Here, we discuss neuropathological changes that may underlie neurodegenerative dementias, including how they can be detected and quantified using currently available biofluid-based biomarkers and how more of them could be identified using targeted proteomics approaches.

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