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In vitro evaluation of barrier function against oral bacteria of dense and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes for guided bone regeneration

Journal article
Authors Margarita Trobos
Annika Juhlin
Furqan A. Shah
Maria Hoffman
H. Sahlin
Christer Dahlin
Published in Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research
Volume 20
Issue 5
Pages 738-748
ISSN 1523-0899
Publication year 2018
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Pages 738-748
Language en
Keywords biofilm, d-PTFE, e-PTFE, GBR, guided bone regeneration, membrane, PTFE, Streptococcus oralis, biofilm formation, streptococcus-oralis, ridge augmentation, tissue, regeneration, collagen, metaanalysis, roughness, implants, surfaces, adhesion, Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine
Subject categories Dentistry


Aim: This study evaluates biofilm formation and barrier function against Streptococcus oralis of nonresorbable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) guided bone regeneration membranes having expanded (e-PTFE) and dense (d-PTFE) microstructure. Materials and Methods: Three e-PTFE membranes of varying openness, one d-PTFE membrane, and commercially pure titanium discs were evaluated. All e-PTFE membranes consisted of PTFE nodes interconnected by fibrils. The d-PTFE membrane was fibril-free, with large evenly spaced indentations. The surfaces were challenged with S. oralis and incubated statically for 2-48 h. Bacterial colonization, viability, and penetration were evaluated. Results: S. oralis numbers increased over time on all surfaces, as observed using scanning electron microscopy, while cell viability decreased, as measured by colony forming unit (CFU) counting. At 24 h and 48 h, biofilms on d-PTFE were more mature and thicker (tower formations) than on e-PTFE, where fewer layers of cells were distributed mainly horizontally. Biofilms accumulated preferentially within d-PTFE membrane indentations. At 48 h, greater biofilm biomass and number of viable S. oralis were found on d-PTFE compared to e-PTFE membranes. All membranes were impermeable to S. oralis cells. Conclusions: All PTFE membranes were effective barriers against bacterial passage in vitro. However, d-PTFE favored S. oralis biofilm formation.

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